The plumbing of the U.S. oil market is pivoting. Old pipelines have been reversed to deliver crude to Gulf of Mexico terminals. New ones also point at the Gulf Coast.
The changes are cementing the stature of the U.S. in world oil markets, feeding exports of crude from shale fields and fuel made by coastal refineries. More pipelines and expanded ports have enabled American oil producers to reach 10 million barrels a day (bbl/d) in output, in league with Saudi Arabia and Russia.
It is a far cry from the past, when U.S. midstream assets reflected a much greater dependence on foreign oil. For example, in 1967 the Capline pipeline began shuttling imported and Gulf Coast crude northward from Louisiana to Illinois, where it was dispensed to Midwestern refineries.